##
sqrt

sqrt —
Returns a square root value.

## Description

Returns the square root of *x* (*x* non-negative).

The argument value is restricted for *log*,
*log10*, and *sqrt*.

## Syntax

**sqrt**(x) (no rate restriction)

**sqrt**(k/i[]) (k- or i-arrays )

where the argument within the parentheses may be an expression. Value converters perform arithmetic translation from units of one kind to units of another. The result can then be a term in a further expression.

## Examples

Here is an example of the sqrt opcode. It uses the file *sqrt.csd*.

**Example 935. Example of the sqrt opcode.**

See the sections *Real-time Audio* and *Command Line Flags* for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o sqrt.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>
sr = 44100
ksmps = 32
0dbfs = 1
nchnls = 2
instr 1
asig pluck 0.7, 55, 55, 0, 1
kpan line 0,p3,1
kleft = sqrt(1-kpan)
kright = sqrt(kpan)
printks "square root of left channel = %f\\n", 1, kleft ;show coarse of sqaure root values
outs asig*kleft, asig*kright ;where 0.707126 is between 2 speakers
endin
</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>
i 1 0 10
e
</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>

Its output should include lines like these:

square root of left channel = 1.000000
square root of left channel = 0.948688
square root of left channel = 0.894437
square root of left channel = 0.836676
square root of left channel = 0.774620
square root of left channel = 0.707139
square root of left channel = 0.632499
square root of left channel = 0.547781
square root of left channel = 0.447295
square root of left channel = 0.316242