fmb3 — Uses FM synthesis to create a Hammond B3 organ sound.


Uses FM synthesis to create a Hammond B3 organ sound. It comes from a family of FM sounds, all using 4 basic oscillators and various architectures, as used in the TX81Z synthesizer.


ares fmb3 kamp, kfreq, kc1, kc2, kvdepth, kvrate[, ifn1, ifn2, ifn3, \
      ifn4, ivfn]


fmb3 takes 5 tables for initialization. The first 4 are the basic inputs and the last is the low frequency oscillator (LFO) used for vibrato. The last table should usually be a sine wave. These all default to a sine wave table.

The initial waves should be:

  • ifn1 -- sine wave

  • ifn2 -- sine wave

  • ifn3 -- sine wave

  • ifn4 -- sine wave


kamp -- Amplitude of note.

kfreq -- Frequency of note played.

kc1, kc2 -- Controls for the synthesizer:

  • kc1 -- Total mod index

  • kc2 -- Crossfade of two modulators

  • Algorithm -- 4

kvdepth -- Vibrator depth

kvrate -- Vibrator rate


Here is an example of the fmb3 opcode. It uses the file fmb3.csd.

Example 355. Example of the fmb3 opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac     ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o fmb3.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32  
nchnls = 2
0dbfs  = 1

instr 1

kfreq = 220
kc1 = p4
kc2 = p5
kvrate = 6

kvdpth line 0, p3, p6
asig   fmb3 .4, kfreq, kc1, kc2, kvdpth, kvrate
       outs asig, asig

;sine wave.
f 1 0 32768 10 1

i 1 0 2  5  5 0.1
i 1 3 2 .5 .5 0.01

See Also

FM Synthesis

More information about frequency modulation on Wikipedia:


Author: John ffitch (after Perry Cook)
University of Bath, Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK

New in Csound version 3.47