fmpercfl — Uses FM synthesis to create a percussive flute sound.


Uses FM synthesis to create a percussive flute sound. It comes from a family of FM sounds, all using 4 basic oscillators and various architectures, as used in the TX81Z synthesizer.


ares fmpercfl kamp, kfreq, kc1, kc2, kvdepth, kvrate[, ifn1, ifn2, \
      ifn3, ifn4, ivfn]


All these opcodes take 5 tables for initialization. The first 4 are the basic inputs and the last is the low frequency oscillator (LFO) used for vibrato. These all default to a sine wave table.

The initial waves should be:

  • ifn1 -- sine wave

  • ifn2 -- sine wave

  • ifn3 -- sine wave

  • ifn4 -- sine wave


kamp -- Amplitude of note.

kfreq -- Frequency of note played.

kc1, kc2 -- Controls for the synthesizer:

  • kc1 -- Total mod index

  • kc2 -- Crossfade of two modulators

  • Algorithm -- 4

kvdepth -- Vibrator depth

kvrate -- Vibrator rate


Here is an example of the fmpercfl opcode. It uses the file fmpercfl.csd.

Example 360. Example of the fmpercfl opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac     ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o fmpercfl.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32  
nchnls = 2
0dbfs  = 1

instr 1

kfreq = 220
kc1 = 5
kvdepth = .01
kvrate = 6

kc2  line 5, p3, p4
asig fmpercfl .5, kfreq, kc1, kc2, kvdepth, kvrate
     outs asig, asig

; sine wave.
f 1 0 32768 10 1

i 1 0 4 5
i 1 5 8 .1


See Also

FM Synthesis

More information about frequency modulation on Wikipedia:


Author: John ffitch (after Perry Cook)
University of Bath, Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK

New in Csound version 3.47