linenr — The linen opcode extended with a final release segment.


linenr -- same as linen except that the final segment is entered only on sensing a MIDI note release. The note is then extended by the decay time.


ares linenr xamp, irise, idec, iatdec
kres linenr kamp, irise, idec, iatdec


irise -- rise time in seconds. A zero or negative value signifies no rise modification.

idec -- decay time in seconds. Zero means no decay.

iatdec -- attenuation factor by which the closing steady state value is reduced exponentially over the decay period. This value must be positive and is normally of the order of .01. A large or excessively small value is apt to produce a cutoff which is audible. A zero or negative value is illegal.


kamp, xamp -- input amplitude signal.

linenr is unique within Csound in containing a note-off sensor and release time extender. When it senses either a score event termination or a MIDI noteoff, it will immediately extend the performance time of the current instrument by idec seconds, then execute an exponential decay towards the factor iatdec. For two or more units in an instrument, extension is by the greatest idec.

You can use other pre-made envelopes which start a release segment upon receiving a note off message, like linsegr and expsegr, or you can construct more complex envelopes using xtratim and release. Note that you don't need to use xtratim if you are using linenr, since the time is extended automatically.

These r units can also be modified by MIDI noteoff velocities (see veloffs).


Here is an example of the linenr opcode. It uses the file linenr.csd.

Example 522. Example of the linenr opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc       -M0 ;;;RT audio I/O with MIDI in

; Example by Jonathan Murphy and Charles Gran 2007
  sr	    =  44100
  ksmps	    =  10
  nchnls    =  2

        ; new, and important. Make sure that midi note events are only
        ; received by instruments that actually need them.

	; turn default midi routing off
	massign		0, 0
	; route note events on channel 1 to instr 1
	massign		1, 1

; Define your midi controllers
#define C1 #21#
#define C2 #22#
#define C3 #23#

; Initialize MIDI controllers
	    initc7    1, 21, 0.5 		  ;delay send
	    initc7    1, 22, 0.5		  ;delay: time to zero
	    initc7    1, 23, 0.5 		  ;delay: rate 

  gaosc	    init      0

; Define an opcode to "smooth" the MIDI controller signal
    opcode smooth, k, k
  kin       xin
  kport	    linseg    0, 0.0001, 0.01, 1, 0.01
  kin       portk     kin, kport
            xout      kin

instr   1  
 ; Generate a sine wave at the frequency of the MIDI note that triggered the intrument
  ifqc	    cpsmidi
  iamp	    ampmidi   10000
  aenv	    linenr    iamp, .01, .1, .01 	  ;envelope
  a1	    oscil     aenv, ifqc, 1
; All sound goes to the global variable gaosc
  gaosc	    =  gaosc + a1

    instr     198 ; ECHO
  kcmbsnd   ctrl7     1, 21, 0, 1 		  ;delay send
  ktime	    ctrl7     1, 22, 0.01, 6 		  ;time loop fades out
  kloop	    ctrl7     1, 23, 0.01, 1 		  ;loop speed
; Receive MIDI controller values and then smooth them
  kcmbsnd   smooth    kcmbsnd
  ktime	    smooth    ktime
  kloop	    smooth    kloop

  imaxlpt   =  1 				  ;max loop time
; Create a variable reverberation (delay) of the gaosc signal
  acomb	    vcomb     gaosc, ktime, kloop, imaxlpt, 1
  aout	    =  (acomb * kcmbsnd) + gaosc * (1 - kcmbsnd)
	    outs      aout, aout
  gaosc	    =  0


f1 0 16384 10 1
i198 0 10000

See Also

Envelope Generators