* — Multiplication operator.

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and */* bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. *+* and *−* bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

The arguments of * can be scalar values or k-rate one dimensional arrays (vectors), or any combination. If one of the arguments is an array, so is the value.

Here is an example of the * operator. It uses the file *multiplies.csd*.

**Example 24. Example of the * operator.**

See the sections *Real-time Audio* and *Command Line Flags* for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> ; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform -odac ;;;realtime audio out ;-iadc ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too ; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below: ; -o multiplies.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> sr = 44100 ksmps = 32 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 instr 1 kenv expon 0.01, p3, 1 aout poscil 0.8*kenv, 440, 1 ;multiply amplitude from 0 to 1 * 0.8 printks "base amplitude * rising expon output = 0.8 * %f\n", .1, kenv outs aout, aout endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 1 0 16384 10 1 ; sine wave i 1 0 2 e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>

Its output should include a line like this:

base amplitude * rising expon output = 0.8 * 0.010000 base amplitude * rising expon output = 0.8 * 0.012589 .......... base amplitude * rising expon output = 0.8 * 0.794328 base amplitude * rising expon output = 0.8 * 0.998466