print — Displays the values init (i-rate) variables.


These units will print orchestra init-values.


print iarg [, iarg1] [, iarg2] [...]


iarg, iarg2, ... -- i-rate arguments.


print -- print the current value of the i-time arguments (or expressions) iarg at every i-pass through the instrument.

[Note] Note

The print opcode will truncate decimal places and may not show the complete value. Csound's precision depends on whether it is the floats (32-bit) or double (64-bit) version, since most internal calculations use one of these formats. If you need more resolution in the console output, you can try printf.


Here is an example of the print opcode. It uses the file print.csd.

Example 802. Example of the print opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac    ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o print.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32
nchnls = 2
0dbfs  = 1

instr 1

irand = rnd(3)			;generate a random number from 0 to 3
print irand			;print it
asig  poscil .7, 440*irand, 1
      outs asig, asig

f1 0 16384 10 1	;sine wave

i 1 0 1
i 1 2 1
i 1 4 1

Its output should include lines like these:

instr 1:  irand = 2.930
instr 1:  irand = 0.420
instr 1:  irand = 2.316

See also

Printing and Display