printks2 — Prints a new value every time a control variable changes using a printf() style syntax.


Prints a new value every time a control variable changes using a printf() style syntax.


printks2 "string", kval


"string" -- the text string to be used as a format.


kval -- signal to be printed. The style of printing is specified in string with the standard C value specifier (%f, %d, etc.).

Print Output Formatting

All standard C language printf() control characters may be used. For example, if kval1 = 153.26789 then some common formatting options are:

  1. %f prints with full precision: 153.26789

  2. %5.2f prints: 153.26

  3. %d prints integers-only: 153

  4. %c treats kval1 as an ascii character code.

In addition to all the printf() codes, printks2 supports these useful character codes:

printks2 Code Character Code
\\r, \\R, %r, or %R return character (\r)
\\n, \\N, %n, %N newline character (\n)
\\t, \\T, %t, or %T tab character (\t)
%! semicolon character (;) This was needed because a ; is interpreted as an comment.
^ escape character (0x1B)
^ ^ caret character (^)
˜ ESC[ (escape+[ is the escape sequence for ANSI consoles)
˜˜ tilde (˜)

For more information about printf() formatting, consult any C language documentation.


Here is an example of the printks2 opcode. It uses the file printks2.csd.

Example 807. Example of the printks2 opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o printk.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 44100
ksmps = 1
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  ; Change a value linearly from 0 to 100,
  ; over the period defined by p3.
  kval line 0, p3, 100

  ; Print the value of kval when it changes.
  printks2 "value now %f\n", int(kval)


; Play Instrument #1 for 5 seconds.
i 1 0 5


See also

Printing and Display


Author: John ffitch
Bath, UK
Mar 2014

New in Csound version 6.03