^ — Power of operator.


Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and / bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and −. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. + and bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

The operator ^ raises a to the b power. b may not be audio-rate. Use with caution as precedence may not work correctly. See pow. (New in Csound version 3.493.)


a ^  b  (b not audio-rate)

where the arguments a and b may be further expressions.


Here is an example of the ^ operator. It uses the file raises.csd.

Example 31. Example of the ^ operator.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac     ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if RT audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
;-o ^.wav        ; output to audio file

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32
nchnls = 2
0dbfs  = 1
instr 1	; Lo-Fi sound

kpow	  = 10						;exponent
kbase	  line 1, p3, 2.2				;vary the base
kQuantize = kbase^kpow
kQuantize = kQuantize*0.5				;half the number of steps for each side of a bipolar signal
printk2	  kQuantize
asig	  diskin2 "fox.wav", 1, 0, 1			;loop the fox
asig	  = round(asig * kQuantize) / kQuantize		;quantize and scale audio signal
	  outs asig, asig  


i1 0 19.2


Its output should include lines like these:

 i1     0.50000
 i1     0.50021
 i1     0.50042
 i1  1327.49320
 i1  1327.74465

See also

Arithmetic and Logic Operations