vbapz — Writes a multi-channel audio signal to a ZAK array.


Writes a multi-channel audio signal to a ZAK array.


vbapz inumchnls, istartndx, asig, kazim [, kelev] [, kspread]


inumchnls -- number of channels to write to the ZA array. Must be in the range 2 - 256.

istartndx -- first index or position in the ZA array to use


asig -- audio signal to be panned

kazim -- azimuth angle of the virtual source

kelev (optional) -- elevation angle of the virtual source

kspread (optional) -- spreading of the virtual source (range 0 - 100). If value is zero, conventional amplitude panning is used. When kspread is increased, the number of loudspeakers used in panning increases. If value is 100, the sound is applied to all loudspeakers.

The opcode vbapz is the multiple channel analog of the opcodes like vbap4, working on inumchnls and using a ZAK array for output.

[Warning] Warning

Please note that all vbap panning opcodes require the vbap system to be initialized using vbaplsinit.


See the entry for vbap8 for an example of usage of the vbap opcodes.


Ville Pulkki: Virtual Sound Source Positioning Using Vector Base Amplitude Panning Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 1997 June, Vol. 45/6, p. 456.

See also

Panning and Spatialization: Vector Base Amplitude Panning


John ffitch
University of Bath/Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK
May 2000

New in Csound Version 4.07. Input parameters accept k-rate since Csund 5.09.