String variables are variables with a name starting with S or gS (for a local or global string variable, respectively). These variables can be used as input argument to any opcode that expects a quoted string constant, and can be manipulated at initialization or performance time with the opcodes listed below.

It is also possible to use string p-fields. The string p-field can be used by many orchestra opcodes directly, or it can be copied to a string variable first:

a1    diskin2 p5, 1

Sname strget  p5
a1    diskin2 Sname, 1

Strings within Csound can be expressed using traditional double quotes (" "), and also using {{ }}. The second method is useful to allow ';' and '$' characters within the string without having to used ASCII codes.

[Note] Note

String variables and related opcodes are not available in Csound versions older than 5.00.

Strings can also be linked to a number using strset and strget.

Csound 5 also has improvements in parsing string constants. It is possible to specify a multi-line string by enclosing it within {{ and }} instead of the usual double quote characters, and the following escape sequences are automatically converted:

[Note] Note

If the user does not want an escaped sequence to be automatically converted, she has to escape it with an additional '\' character so that Csound knows it does not have to interpret the escaped sequence. For example the string "Not escaped\nline return" will be converted to

        "Not escaped
         line return"

before being used, while the string "Escaped\\nline return" will be converted to

        "Escaped\nline return"

before being used.

It can be useful together with the system opcode:

instr 1
 ; csound5 lets you make a string with line returns inside double brackets
    system {{     ps
            cd ~/Desktop
            ls -l

And the python opcodes, among others:

pyruni {{
import random

pool = [(1 + i/10.0) ** 1.2 for i in range(100)]

def get_number_from_pool(n, p):
    if random.random() < p:
        i = int(random.random() * len(pool))
        pool[i] = n
    return random.choice(pool)

String Manipulation Opcodes

These opcodes perform operations on string variables (note: most of the opcodes run at init time only, and have a version with a "k" suffix that runs at both init and performance time; exceptions to this rule include puts and strget):

  • evalstr - Evaluates a string containing Csound code, returning a value.

  • return - Returns a value from an instrument.

  • strcpy and strcpyk - Assigns to a string variable.

  • strcat and strcatk - Concatenates strings, and stores the result in a variable.

  • strcmp and strcmpk - Compares strings.

  • strget - Assigns to a string variable, from strset table at the specified index, or string score p-field.

  • strlen and strlenk - Returns the length of a string.

  • sprintf - printf-style formatted output conversion, storing the result in a string variable.

  • sprintfk - printf-style formatted output conversion, storing the result in a string variable at k-rate.

  • puts - Prints a string constant or variable.

  • strindex and strindexk - Returns the first occurence of a string in another string.

  • strrindex and strrindexk - Returns the last occurence of a string in another string.

  • strsub and strsubk - Returns a substring of the input string.

  • strstrip - Strip whitespace from string.

strfromurl sets a string variable at initialization time to the value found from reading an URL.